History: December 11, 2018

1777

General George Washington and more than 12,000 troops start their cold slog to Valley Forge.

Across the Schuylkill River, they encountered British soldiers and battled with General George Cornwallis and his men. The fight was completely coincidence, not strategic: Cornwallis’ men had been foraging for berries.

Washington ordered a swift retreat, being unprepared to fight. They destroyed the bridge that linked both sides of the river, keeping the Brits at bay.

They would finally make it to Valley Forge on December 19.

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1815

President James Madison presents a treaty to Congress to manage trade with Great Britain.

Following the end of the War of 1812, trade with Great Britain restarted, with the Empire finally completely giving in to America’s status as an independent, free, and powerful nation.

The agreement was largely ceremonial, but asserted and established America as a legitimate power on the High Seas in regard to both military and commerce.

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1816

Indiana becomes the 19th state.

The organized territory had already drafted and approved a Constitution, and had a functional capitol and and governor.

It quickly went from frontier territory to organized, industrial powerhouse.

But the aggressive expansion bankrupted the state. Meanwhile, the value of goods it produced increased and land value skyrocketed.

At first, it was dominated by German immigrants, and later overtaken by ethnic English.

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1941

The Nazis declare war on the United States.

Following the attacks on Pearl Harbor, America swiftly entered into the Pacific conflict, at least politically.

This declaration of war would bring America to the European front as well.

Hitler had a standing agreement with Japan to begin fighting America at some point, and the attack on Pearl Harbor was his entry point.

He also believed that Japan would force the Americans to surrender quickly, and would aide him in fighting Russia.

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1961

American helicopters begin staging in South Vietnam.

33 Vertol H-21C Shawnee helicopters arrived in Saigon aboard the Core.

A total crew of 400 would man and operate the helicopters. At first, the mission was to only assist South Vietnamese troops in getting into North Vietnamese territory.

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2008

Bernie Madoff is arrested.

Madoff engineered one of the biggest cons in history, deftly maneuvering more than $65 billion in assets for various clients, for his own financial gain.

When the economy began to tank in 2008, he couldn’t keep it up.

He confessed to his sons, who turned him in.

Madoff pled guilty to 11 felony counts and was quickly convicted. Though he was sentenced to 150 years behind bars, the path of destruction continued. His own son killed himself the following year, and his other son was implicated in assisting with the scheme, though he claims innocence.

History: December 10, 2018

1778

John Jay becomes the president of the Continental Congress.

He had previously served as a delegate to the Congress.

Jay was known for favoring independence in the colonies, but was weary of a complete split from Britain.

Nonetheless he would eventually be named the first Chief Justice by George Washington, and later negotiated the Jay Treaty in 1794 to settle ongoing military and commercial disputes between the US and Britain.

He finished his political life as Governor of New York from 1797 to 1801.

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1901

Five years after the death of Alfred Nobel, the first of his namesake prizes are awarded in Stockholm, Sweden.

The fields were: physics, chemistry, medicine, literature, and peace.

Nobel himself most notably invented dynamite and the science of controlled explosions. He willed his tremendous fortune to those who benefited mankind.

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1915

The one-millionth Model T is produced by Ford.

It was a milestone that was unexpectedly overlooked. Only later, in an internal newsletter, did the company note the milestone.

Nine years later the ten-millionth car was paraded around to much fanfare, traveling from coast to coast.

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1936

King Edward VIII abdicates the Throne.

In order to circumvent the traditional, ceremonial, political, and religious obligations of the monarchy, Edward would have to leave power in order to marry commoner Wallis Simpson.

The Church of England dictated that divorced people could not marry again as long as their ex was still living. As to not cause dangerous precedent, Edward left his station as head of the Church of England.

He was succeeded by George VI. Much of the drama was illustrated in the movie, “The King’s Speech.”

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1967

Otis Redding and his band die in a plane crash over Lake Monona, just outside Madison, Wisconsin.

Severe weather was blamed for the accident, though the exact cause of the crash was not determined.

The wreckage and the bodies were found the next day.

History: December 7, 2018

1787

The Delaware state legislature ratifies the US Constitution, making Delaware the first of the United States.

By June of the following year, New Hampshire was the ninth of the 13 states to ratify the Constitution, rendering it binding.

The laws of the new government came into effect March 4, 1789.

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1805

Westward explorers Lewis and Clark build camp at what would become known as Fort Clatsop, near present-day Portland.

The Winter home was built after the crew laid eyes for the first time on the Pacific Ocean just a couple months earlier. The weather would be too brutal to continue an eastward crossing back across the newly-explored territory.

The area was full of elk and deer, providing plenty of food and resources for the winter. The nearby mountains provided protection from exceedingly inclement weather.

There crew departed Fort Clatsop in March the following year.

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1941

At approximately 7:02 a.m., radar operators stationed at Pearl Harbor in Hawaii spot a fleet of aircraft on the radar headed toward the island. They were expecting American B-17s, so they found no reason to be alarmed.

They were wrong.

More than 360 Japanese fighter planes appeared less than an hour later, attacking the quiet Naval base early on a Sunday morning.

2400 Americans were killed and 1200 were wounded. Five of 8 battleships were destroyed, 3 destroyers were sunk, and 7 more were left severely damaged.

It was one of the worst foreign attacks on American-held land ever.

The next day the Senate voted to go to war with Japan unanimously, 82-to-0.

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1987

Soviet premier Mikhail Gorbachev flies into the United States to meet with President Reagan.

During the visit, the two heads of state would approve the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Force Treaty, which would have each nation do away with stockpiles of ballistic missiles in Europe with ranges between 320 and 3400 miles.

This treaty was unique in that it called for eliminating weapons, not just limiting the number a country could have.

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1999

The Recording Industry Association of America files a lawsuit against music service Napster for allowing free sharing of copyrighted tunes.

The case would define the new rules of file sharing on online networks.

It took almost 8 years to tie up the case. Though Napster sit down at first, it later returned as a paid service and is still around as a subscription music service.

History: December 6, 2018

1865

Georgia ratifies the 13th Amendment, thus ending slavery.

The law was passed only 8 months after the end of the Civil War, and signaled the end of people being treated as property. Though of course it would be years before Civil Rights legislation was properly enacted.

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1868

The Reno Gang pulls off its last train robbery.

Reno brothers Frank William and Simeon held a short but active robbing career. On this train robbery, they killed a guard who was on board. They were caught shortly thereafter.

The public was in uproar over the guard’s death — so much so that the masses busted out the three brothers from their jail cells to have them promptly hanged.

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1884

The Washington Monument is finished, when construction workers put the final, 9-inch pyramid at the top of the obelisk.

It was named, obviously, for the nation’s first commander-in-chief.

The location for the monument was decided by city architect Pierre L’Enfant. The Washington Monument stands between the Lincoln Monument and the Capitol Building, near the banks of the Potomac River, just a block from the White House.

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1917

The Mont Blanc munitions freighter sails full speed to rendezvous with a small convoy it would lead across the Atlantic to Europe.

On board were 2300 tons of picric acid, 200 tons of TNT, 35 tons of gasoline and 10 tons of gun cotton.

The Mont Blanc collided with the Norwegian boat Imo in the North Atlantic at approximately 8:45 a.m., as it was exiting the harbor. The collision propelled the Mont Blanc back toward shore. It burned safely for about 20 minutes. The nearby fire department came to shore to try and put out the small blaze.

But it was for naught. When the blaze erupted, almost 1800 people were killed instantly and another 9000 injured. 200 were blinded by the bright white explosion.

It’s the largest explosion known to man before the detonation of the atomic bomb.

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1969

The Rolling Stones headline the Alamont Free Concert in northern California.

Also performing were Santana, Jefferson Airplane, and Crosby, Stills, Nash & Young.

There were 300,000 in attendance, hoping to make this the Woodstock of the west coast. A bunch of hippies in California did not behave as well as some would have hoped: there was one homicide and three accidental deaths reported. Meanwhile, four women gave birth to children, and among the brawling, stampeding, and moshpit of humanity, hundreds were injured, and dozens reported stolen cars and other property.

As a result of the mayhem, the Grateful Dead pulled out of performing.

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1992

49ers Wide Receiver Jerry Rice catches a ball in the end zone, making him the record-holder for most career touchdown receptions, with 101. It had been held by Steve Largent.

Rice played for another 8 years, ultimately scoring 208 TDs, leaving the old record in his dust.

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2006

NASA releases photos taken by the Mars Global Surveyor that suggests there could be flowing water on the Red Planet.

The images showed deep gullies and canyons that scientists believe could only have been formed from water erosion. (Or an evil Martian race polluting their planet with a highly-toxic and corrosive industrial goop for the sake of profit).

The release came a month after the last contact had been made with the probe. Human error was to blame for losing the spacecraft, but that’s okay — the mission lasted 3 times longer than NASA expected.

History: December 5, 2018

1492

Christopher Columbus reaches the coast of Hispaniola.

The culmination of his first adventure across the Atlantic made him the first recorded European to set foot in the Caribbean.

The natives received him and his men well, at least at first.

Later, inhabitants of present-day Dominican Republic attacked the crew with arrows. He managed to kidnap a handful of the attackers, though, and brought them back to Europe.

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1872

A small British boat discovers an American vessel at full sail near the Azores islands.

The American boat was called the Mary Celeste. It was completely stocked and in tip-top condition — but no one was on board.

The British crew boarded the Mary Celeste to find water in the hold and the lifeboat missing.

The captain, his family, and the 8 passengers were never found.

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1933

Prohibition ends.

With ratification of the 21st amendment, the sale and transportation of alcohol was again legal in the United States.

For the previous 14 years, gangsters like Al Capone thrived on the bootlegging business.

Several states would remain dry for a couple decades. Mississippi remained a dry state until 1966.

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1945

Five TBM Avenger torpedo bombers disappear while flying over the Bermuda Triangle.

All of the pilots and their crews were never found. A Mariner flying boat was put into the air to search for the missing planes — it too disappeared, and is suspected to have exploded in mid-air.

A Navy investigation concluded that the planes ran out of fuel and the pilots ditched in the ocean.

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1969

The prototype of the Internet grows, with the expansion of the Department of Defense’s Advanced Research Projects Agency computer network. ARPANET for short.

The project linked what were called network nodes in Los Angeles, Menlo Park, Santa Barbara, and the University of Utah.

At first the computers only shared test messages to ensure that information could be shared between networks. From there, it expanded exponentially as more researches connected to this network of networks.

The same principles and technology now power the Internet.

History: December 4, 2018

1783

General George Washington tells his closest officers that he will resign as general.

He fully intended to quietly return to civilian life.

The resolute Washington reportedly chocked up and cried briefly while embracing and bidding goodbye to his closest confidants.

The official resignation was delivered to Congress on December 23. Then, he left for Mount Vernon.

He spent 6 relatively quiet years as a farmer. But in 1789, he was elected the first president of the United States.

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1917

The concept of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder is first reported.

Psychiatrist WH Rivers wrote a report called “The Repression of War Experience.”

It included anecdotal evidence of British soldiers who had returned from combat during World War I. The young men suffered from anxiety and nightmares.

Rivers suggested that the emotional toll could often rival the physical toll that war took on soldiers.

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1918

Woodrow Wilson departs Washington on a trip in which he would become the first sitting president to visit Europe on state business.

He traveled by boat, for 9 days aboard the S. S. George Washington.

It docked in France, and Wilson went to Versailles. From there, he sat at the table to seek a formal peace treaty to end World War I.

For his efforts, he would be awarded the 1920 Peace Prize.

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1945

By a vote in the Senate, the United States becomes a participating member of the United Nations.

The organization was officially founded by China, France, the Soviet Union, Britain and the U.S. in October that year, following the end of World War II.

With approval from the Senate, the U.S. could constitutionally participate and contribute.

After the failure of the League of Nations after World War I, the country and the world was desperate for an organization that promised to mediate and end all future war conflicts. THANK GOD THAT WORKED.

###

2009

Amanda Knox is convicted of murder by an Italian Court.

The American student studying abroad was implicated in the murder of her roommate, with her boyfriend as an accomplice.

After a series of appeals, Knox was eventually acquitted in 2011.

History: November 30, 2018

1782

An agreement to terms of peace is forged between American and British delegates in Paris.

The document would eventually become the Treaty of Paris, and was signed officially in September the following year.

Among the negotiators for the Americans were John Jay, John Adams, and Benjamin Franklin.

Above all else, the terms included a provision to recognize the United States as a sovereign nation, and that the British Crown relinquish any claim to rights or property therein.

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1804

The US Senate begins its third impeachment trial, this time for Supreme Court justice Samuel Chase.

Chase was an irritable Federalist, who detested Thomas Jefferson and his followers. Representative John Randolph led the crusade against Chase, accusing him of allowing juries in politically-charged cases to be stacked with his political allies, and being highly partisan in his rulings — in other words, legislating from the bench.

Chase was acquitted of all charges on March 1st the following year. Since then, the Supreme Court has been relatively immune to attacks by Congress when upset over rulings and judges’ opinions.

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1872

The first-ever soccer match between two countries is played.

It pitted Scotland and England against each other at the West of Scotland Cricket’s Club in Patrick, Scotland.

Though the Scots scored a goal in he first half, the refs ruled that the shot didn’t quite make it under the tape that was used to mark the upper crossbar — this was before metal frames, of course.

The match ended uneventfully tied 0-0.

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1981

As a sign of events to follow, the United States and Soviet Union engage in talks to reduce the Soviets’ weapons cache.

The meetings in particular were over intermediate-range nuclear forces in Europe. Though talks in the 70s reduced the number of long-range nuclear weapons for both nations, the Reds were still installing shorter-range missiles across their European territory.

President Reagan employed his zero-option, which would have had the US halt shipments of new weapons to western Europe if the Soviets drew down their existing stocks in Eastern Europe.

The talks ended unsuccessfully, but an agreement was eventually reached in December 1987, when Reagan and Gorbachev agreed to equitable terms.

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1994

Oil companies Exxon and Mobil sign papers to merge, joining the Number-1 and Number-2 sized oil giants in the world.

The deal took 11 months to get approval from the government, one of the longest in history. The $81 billion merger was approved only when the new company agreed to sell off more than 2400 gas stations across the country.

The companies had originally been one, back in the late 1800s, joined as Standard Oil Company. They were split apart in 1911 by a Supreme Court decision.

History: November 29, 2018

1830

Polish locals rise up against Russian control.

Young Polish officers in Warsaw serving at the military academy revolted, and quickly got widespread public support.

The uprising spread to nearby Lithuania and Belarus. Though the fighters fiercely stood for independence, they were no match for the Imperial Russian Army, which squashed the rebellion less than a year later.

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1877

Inventor Thomas Edison first demonstrates his phonograph machine.

He showed it off to editors of the Scientific American magazine. The small machine was able to record sounds, and when a crank was turned, replay them.

The invention was spurred while Edison was trying to find a way of recording telegraph messages.

He got the patent for the invention the following February.

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1929

Explorer Richard Byrd and three others fly over the South Pole.

They’re the first to cross the geographical landmark by air. The roundtrip flight from the Ross Ice Shelf and back took 18 hours and 41 minutes.

Byrd dropped an American flag over the exact spot of the pole to commemorate the occasion.

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1945

The Constituent Assembly of Yugoslavia declares the country’s monarchy abolished, and replaces it with what they call a republic.

The new regime was in cahoots with the Soviet Union to proliferate communism across Europe and elsewhere from the start. The new leftist state even had the chutzpah to shoot down American planes flying over their airspace the following year.

The US and its allies quickly distrusted the new leader, Josip Tito. But with time their foreign relations softened.

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1990

The UN Security Council passes Resolution 678, which demands that Iraqi forces withdraw from Kuwait by January 15 the following year. Members states would have authority to use all necessary means to force Iraq out, should it not comply.

As the deadline approached, on January 14, France proposed that the UN propose another proposal to call on the Iraqis to get out of Kuwait, but actually mean it that time.

But that wouldn’t be the case. Aerial bombings began on January 17th, coordinated by Air Force Lieutenant General Chuck Horner. Norman Schwarzkopf would eventually take over the mission.

November 28, 2018

1520

Portugese explorer Ferdinand Magellan reaches the Pacific Ocean. He becomes the first European to reach the Pacific through the Atlantic.

He and his crew set sail 14 months earlier from Spain, in search of a western sea route to Indonesia.

It took an astounding 38 days to get through what is now named the Strait of Magellan. The explorer was so overjoyed upon entering the Pacific that he wept for joy.

In 99 days he crossed the newfound ocean, whose waters were remarkably calm. He thus named it after the Latin word “pacificus” — which means “tranquil.”

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1582

William Shakespeare marries Anne Hathaway. He was 18, she was 26.

Their first daughter was born 6 months later. Oops.

Shakespeare of course would go on to write numerous plays and sonnets.

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1777

John Adams is appointed commissioner to France.

He replaced Silas Deane, who was accused of mismanaging French money sent to America. Though Deane held his innocence, he was forced to live in exile.

When Congress cleared his name in 1842, his heirs were paid $37,000 in reparations.

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1914

After four months of closure, the New York Stock Exchange reopens.

It shut down with the outbreak of World War I, after foreign investors cashed out to raise money for war.

Trading resumed on December 12th. That day the Dow Jones Industrial Average tanked 24% in one day — at the time it was its worst fall since its founding in 1896.

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1925

The Grand Ole Opry debuts, broadcasting from Nashville.

It started with a one-hour radio program callused “Barn Dance,” broadcast out of Chicago. As its popularity grew, so did the show: in the 1930s it expanded to four hours once a week, and in 1939 was syndicated nationally on NBC Radio.

Since then, country legends like Hank Williams, Ernest Tubb, and Minnie Pearl have all graced the Opry’s stage.

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1994

Serial killer Jeffrey Dahmer is killed while serving out his life sentence at Columbia Correctional Institution in Portage, WI.

He and another inmate were serving as janitors in the prison gym. Another prisoner attacked Dahmer with a broomstick handle, causing severe head trauma. Dahmer died on the way to the hospital.

History: November 27, 2018

1095

Pope Urban II orders the first Crusade.

He called all Christians in Europe to go to war against all Muslims in the Holy Land.

Up to 100,000 people would join the march on Jerusalem. While some did so out of devotion to faith, many were looking for wealth and riches.

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1703

After two weeks, a freak storm in England finally dissipates, having unleashed wind and inches of rain for over two weeks.

Between 10,000 and 30,000 are estimated to have died.

Much of the death toll is contributed to the Navy ships that were lost. As many as 8,000 soldiers were killed when more than 300 ships were destroyed or sunk.

More than 5,000 homes were leveled.

Daniel Defoe would base his first book off of his experience watching this storm. It was called “The Storm.” He would later write “Robinson Crusoe.”

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1863

Confederate soldiers detained in Ohio break out.

Confederate General John Hunt Morgan was known for taking small group of cavalry teams into the North, and attacking strategic points. One mission ran awry, and he was captured outside Salineville, Ohio in July of that year.

After several months in jail, the men were able to dig their way out of prison. Morgan’s cell had a ventilation crawl space, which he was able to use to circumvent the thick prison walls.

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1978

San Francisco Mayor George Moscone and city Supervisor Harvey Milk are killed.

The murderer was Dan White, a former member of the board of supervisors for the city.

It is reported he was wildly unhappy with the Mayor’s decision not to reappoint him to the city board. After gunning down the Mayor, he went after Milk, who took his spot.

Even more controversially, Milk was one of the first and most notable openly gay politicians in the country.

White would employ what was called the “Twinkie Defense”: he claimed junk food and distress from his job loss triggered his desire to commit the crimes.

He was convicted of manslaughter but not murder.

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2005

Rock stars perform at a 13-year-old girl’s bar mitzvah celebration in Long Island.

Elizabeth Brooks is the daughter David H. Brooks, the CEO of a powerful military contracting company. Brooks spent over $10 million on the Jewish coming-of-age party.

On hand were 50 Cent, Aerosmith, Tom Petty, Don Henley, Stevie Nicks and Kenny G.

Less than two years later, Brooks was indicted for insider trading and tax evasion, as well as stealing money from his company — including the $10 million to pay for this excessive event.

History: November 26, 2018

1862

Lewis Carroll sends a handwritten draft of a story called “Alice’s Adventures Under Ground” to Alice Liddell.

The author was a friend of the Liddell family, who often enjoyed his fantastical stories. Carroll, whose real name was Charles Dodgson, taught mathematics at Oxford. He suffered from a stammer, except when telling stories to children.

Another novelist friend of the Liddell’s, Henry Kingsley, noticed the manuscript during a visit, and encouraged them to have it published. Dodgson would three years later, under the name of Carroll.

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1898

A blizzard plasters New England, killing at least 450 people across New York, Connecticut, and Massachusetts.

Winds up to 40 miles an hour blew in from the ocean, meeting gales of equal strength coming from the West.

Trains were stopped and communication halted as telegraph lines were downed.

100 ships were blown in from Boston Harbor, and 40 were sunk.

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1922

The tomb of King Tut is entered for the first time in 3,000 years by 2 British archaeologists.

Inside a pyramid, the tomb was well preserved, and included a treasure trove of artifacts and jewelry.

By that time, many of the tombs had been raided, but these explorers took advantage of Tut’s little-known reign. The boy king reigned from the age of 8 to 18, around 1300 BC.

As the archeologists first entered the antechamber, they saw evidence that it had already been visited. But they pressed further, breaking through another door.

On the floor of the tomb, footprints were even visible of the men who laid King Tut to rest for the last time 3,000 years before.

It would take several years to fully excavate the chambers. Most of the collection is hosted at the Cairo Museum.

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1941

President Franklin Roosevelt signs the law that makes the fourth Thursday in November a federal holiday for Thanksgiving.

From colonial times until Abraham Lincoln’s presidency, it was an informal celebration. In 1789, President Washington asked Congress for a special declaration in order to give thanks nationally — for the Constitution.

Abraham Lincoln made the last Thursday of November the official day for giving in thanks in 1863.

Then, FDR butted in in 1939. That year, November had 5 Thursdays, and the president wanted to give stores more time during the Christmas shopping season. So he decreed that November 23, the second-to-last-Thursday, would be Thanksgiving that year.

Many ignored the change. Republicans made it a political issue, saying he was doing an injustice to the legacy of Lincoln.

By 1941, there was enough uproar, and FDR reinstated the fourth Thursday as Thanksgiving.

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1942

“Casablanca” premiers in New York City.

The film, starring Humphrey Bogart and Ingrid Bergman would become one of the most well-known in American film history.

In January the next year, it opened nationwide, and would be nominated for 8 Academy Awards, of which it won 3.

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1965

France becomes the third country to launch a satellite into space.

Astrix-1 launched onboard a Diamant rocket from Hammaguir, Algeria, which it occupied.

The desert launch base was used by the French to conduct nuclear, missile, and space launch tests.

History: November 9

1872
A fire in Boston kills 14 and levels hundreds of buildings.

The blaze began in a warehouse basement, and quickly spread to nearby homes and small factories. Roofs were widely made of wood, which made the fires spread quickly, especially with strong winds that night.

Boston did have a rudimentary hydrant system, but it proved ineffective. With the help of firefighters from Maine and Connecticut, the fire was put out by the following morning.

In rebuilding the town, Boston set up a financial district that remains today in the areas that were burned to the ground.

1906
President Teddy Roosevelt departs the US on board the battleship Louisiana, en route to Panama.

His visit came on the heels of his support for overthrow of the Colombian government, in part to aide the construction of the Panama Canal.

Roosevelt checked out the beginning phases of construction on the project. Afterward, he toured Puerto Rico.

1923
German police forces push against the Nazi Party.

It had recently gained power and control with the Beer Hall Putsch a few days prior.

In the fighting between police and Nazis, Hitler’s elbow became dislocated, and Hermann Goering took a bullet to the groin.

Ultimately 16 Nazis and 3 German police were killed.

Hitler was captured and tried and convicted of treason. While in prison, he wrote Mein Kampf and honed his oratory skills. When he was released, he relaunched the Nazi Party — and the rest is morbid history.

1960
Robert McNamara is named President of Ford.

He would only hold the post for a month, though, before taking a spot in JFK’s cabinet as Secretary of Defense.

McNamara kept the spot under Johnson, and afterward, became president of the World Bank.

1990
The IRS nails Willie Nelson for the $16.7 million he owed in back taxes.

He was primarily in trouble for hiding money in an illegal tax shelter. The IRS negotiated a $6 million cash payment to forgive the whole bill — but Willie was broke.

Feds seized his house and put it up for auction. A die-hard Willie Nelson fan bought the ranch, which found its way back to the singer’s hands.

Part of the revenues from Nelson’s next album, The IRS Tapes, funded his debt bill. He paid it off entirely in 1993.

History: November 8

1793
The Louvre opens in Paris.
The historic French museum began as an archive and private gallery of royal art. After the French Revolution, it opened to a wider audience.
Today it displays artifacts from more than 11,000 years of human history.

1887
Gunslinger Doc Holliday dies in Glenwood Springs, California, from tuberculosis.
The friend to Wyatt Earp was only 36 years old at the time of his death. He was NOT in his prime.
He famously fought in the 1881 shootout at the OK Corral.

1917
Vladimir Lenin takes control of the brand-new All-Russian Congress of Soviets, one day after the Bolsheviks took over the Russian government.
Lenin called for an end to fighting in World War I.
His Bolshevik party held a 60 percent majority in the legislature. They approved a formal ceasefire between the Soviets and the Central Powers, effective December 2nd.

1939
Adolf Hitler escapes an assassination attempt following a speech commemorating the anniversary of his Beer Hall Putsch.
Hitler famously gave speeches to commemorate his first attempted power grab — 1939 was no different.
The bomb went off 12 minutes after Der Fuhrer left the hall. 7 died and 63 were wounded.
Though the Nazis publicly denounced British intelligence for making the attempt, inner circles suggested it came from homegrown German anti-Nazi rebels.

2002
The United Nations enforces its final an most powerful wrist-slap on Iraqi despot Saddam Hussein.
He had just days to give up his weapons programs, or face military actions. The Security Council voted unanimously to support the resolution. A week later, Iraq complied, but inspectors found no evidence of WMD.
Since then, however, al Qaeda has carried out at least 100 chemical attacks on coalition forces in Iraq, using repurposed chemical warheads from what was once Saddam Hussein’s arsenal. That’s according to Chuck Pfarrer, in his book SEAL TARGET GERONIMO.

History: November 7

1776
Benjamin Franklin’s son-in-law is handed the reins of the Post Office by Congress.
Franklin spent years developing an institutionalized communication system across the American colonies. In 1737 he was named Postmaster General in 1737.
He became the postmaster general of all colonies in 1753, but was fired in 1774 because he opened the correspondence of a British Royal governor.
Some of Franklin’s innovations included overnight postal routes between New York and Philadelphia and a system of charging based on rate and distance.
Franklin gave up the post when he was assigned an ambassadorship to France.

1874
A cartoon by Thomas Nast in Harper’s Weekly depicts the Republican Party as a giant elephant. It’s considered the first use of the image to symbolize the Grand Old Party.
A fox was used to portray the Democratic Party. A different cartoon by Nast in which the Democratic Party was symbolized by a donkey would solidify that image — the ass — as a representation of the Left.
The red-and-blue map — red for the GOP, blue for the Democrats — was commonly adopted after the 2000 presidential election.

1914
The first issue of left-leaning The New Republic is published.
The editorial board held strong stances on domestic and foreign government intervention. In 1917, the magazine encouraged America to enter World War I with the Allies.
After the Russian Revolution, TNR was largely supportive of Soviet policies, but moved to the mainstream with the advent of the Cold War.

1944
Franklin Delano Roosevelt is elected to his fourth term as president.
He beat out Thomas Dewey, who was governor of New York — the office FDR held before running for President.
Franklin was a fifth cousin to turn-of-the-century president Teddy Roosevelt.
Three months into his final term, FDR died. After his death, Congress passed term limit legislation, which limited the amount of time a president could spend in office to two terms.

1983
A bomb detonates inside the US Capitol, near the second floor of the Senate side.
The blast took off the door of Robert Byr’d office, and shattered the glass of the republican cloakroom. Damage estimates neared $250,000. No one was injured, and no structural damage was inflicted.
The alleged perpetrators were members of the Armed Resistance Unit, who were protesting American intervention in Granada and Lebanon.
Radical leftist Linda Evans was sentenced to 40 years for planning the attack. Bill Clinton commuted her sentence on his last day in office.

2000
Americans go to the polls in what would become one of the closest elections in history.
George W. Bush eventually beat out Internet Inventor and Global Warming whistleblower Al Gore, though the former Texas governor lost the popular vote.
The victory came after the Supreme Court intervened to end vote recounts in Florida.

History: November 6

1861

Jefferson Davis is elected president of the Confederate States of America.

Like the Union’s first commander-in-chief George Washington, Davis was unopposed.

He would be the Confederate States of America’s only president. His six year term was not quite completed when the CSA was dissolved in 1865.

### 
1906

President Roosevelt begins a trip to Panama and Puerto Rico.

The trip made him the first president to leave the continent on official state business while in office.

During the trip, he inspected the Panama Canal, which remained under construction. In an iconic picture, Roosevelt was photographed operating a large steam shovel.

### 
1917

Vladimir Lenin leads communist revolutionaries who topple Russia’s provisional government.

Lenin oversaw the first Marxist state in the world. He consolidated power under the banner of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.

He died in 1924, and was succeeded by Stalin.

### 
1954

60 years ago today, Elvis Presley did his one and only commercial.

It was on the radio show “Louisiana Hayride” in 1954 for Southern Made Doughnuts, for which he recorded a jingle: “You can get ’em piping hot after four PM, you can get ’em piping hot. Southern Made Doughnuts hit the spot, you can get ’em piping hot after four PM’.”

### 
1962

The United Nations formally condemns apartheid through a resolution.

The document called for all partner countries to end any military and economic aide or support to South Africa, which sanctioned racial segregation against non-whites in the country.

While the white population was a minority in numbers, it nonetheless held control of power in the country.

A new constitution outlawing the injustice was implemented in 1991. Nelson Mandela became president in 1993, after spending 27 years in prison alongside other anti-apartheid leaders.

### 
1995

The Cleveland Browns announce they are moving to Baltimore.

Team owner Art Modell bought the team for $4 million in 1960. With a lackluster performance record and dwindling ticket sales, plus a stadium in disarray, Modell was looking for options.

The city of Cleveland offered $50 million from an excise tax on alcohol on cigarettes, but Modell declined.

Meanwhile, Baltimore offered a $200 million stadium, plus the promise of seat license fees that would earn the ball club lots of money.

Five years later, the Ravens would win the Super Bowl.

History: November 21

1916

The whaling ship Essex is attacked by an 80-ton sperm whale off the coast of South America.

Whales provided materials for oil and their bones had many uses. The crew of the ship got into a tussle with the giant whale, who rammed the boat twice and managed to capsize it.

The whole crew made it into life boats, but only 5 of the 20 survived. They were eventually picked up 83 days later by other ships.

Stories of cannibalism were rampant. It would’ve been the only way to survive. It is legend that men drew straws to see who would be shot in order to be eaten.

The story inspired parts of Herman Melville’s novel “Moby Dick.”

###

1975

A meddling Senate committee reports that American agents had engineered at least 5 assassination plots of foreign leaders.

The Committee to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities linked the U.S. to a failed attempt on Fidel Castro’s life.  The bureaucrats found no information that an American president ever authorized an assassination.

President Ford decried the report, saying it undermined the country’s foreign policy initiatives.

###

1976

“Rocky” premiers in New York City.

After it was released two weeks later across the country, it became a huge hit at the box office.

The boxing flick would take home 3 Oscars, including Best Picture.

Then-unknown Sylvester Stallone even wrote the screenplay.

###

1980

A worldwide television audience of more than 350 million people watch the episode of Dallas that reveals who shot JR.

SPOILER ALERT: It was Kristin Shepard, his wife’s sister and his former mistress.

The CBS drama ran for 12 full seasons, beginning in 1978.

In the US alone, the episode drew in 83 million people. That’s 76 percent of all TV sets in the country at the time.

History: November 13

1789

George Washington finishes his first tour of the new American states as president.

He visited New England, where he was greeted enthusiastically.

Washington wouldn’t visit the southern states for another 2 years.

###

1892

Pudge Huffelfinger signs a deal to play football for the Allegheny Athletic Association for $500, making him the first pro football player.

It had previously been common for athletes to trade their playing time for services or swag. This was before organized teams and leagues, when athletic associations were formed and played informal match ups and seasons.

Pudge was later an insurance executive and Congressman for Minnesota.

###

1980

The Voyager I spacecraft reaches Saturn.

The photographs sent back to Earth baffled scientists.

What was thought to be six rings were actually hundreds, composed of rocks and space debris.

Pioneer 11 had been the first spacecraft to rendezvous with Saturn, but it did not have the photographic capabilities of the Voyager probes.

Voyager I is presently the most distant man-made object in space, nearly 19 billion kilometers away from Earth.

###

1982

The Vietnam War Memorial is dedicated.

The walls featured 57,939 names of those who died. They were commemorated chronologically, not in order of rank.

It is commonplace to make a sketching over the name of family members and loved ones who lost their lives.

History: November 20

1789

New Jersey ratifies the Bill of Rights, the first state to do so.

The addendum to the Constitution grants a list of liberties the Founders did not incorporate into the original draft, but after consideration, were deemed essential to free society.

However, with New Jersey’s approval, they also rejected a measure that forbade Congress from voting itself a pay raise within its own term. That would not become law as the 27th Amendment until 1992.

###

1820

The whaling ship Essex is attacked by an 80-ton sperm whale off the coast of South America.

Whales provided materials for oil and their bones had many uses. The crew of the ship got into a tussle with the giant whale, who rammed the boat twice and managed to capsize it.

The whole crew made it into life boats, but only 5 of the 20 survived. They were eventually picked up 83 days later by other ships.

Stories of cannibalism were rampant. It would’ve been the only way to survive. It is legend that men drew straws to see who would be shot in order to be eaten.

The story inspired parts of Herman Melville’s novel “Moby Dick.”

###

1923

Garrett Morgan receives a patent for the design of the modern traffic signal.

While the first stop-and-go signs were implemented in London in the mid-1800s, Morgan’s design incorporated the “slow down” signal, making traffic crossings and intersections a little safer.

Morgan’s story is truly heroic: His parents had been slaves, and he moved to Ohio for work when he was just 14. He developed a knack for working with his hands, and found work repairing sewing machines.

At the age of 30 he opened his own store, and in 1909 added garment alterations to his services.

Having become rather wealthy, he started his own newspaper, the Cleveland Call, in 1920. Given his wealth, he was able to own a car, and was acutely aware of the needs for improved traffic control in a a time when horses, pedestrians, cars, and bikes packed streets.

His design sold to General Electric for $40,000.

###

1947

Princess Elizabeth marries Philip Mountbatten.

The ostentatious wedding at Westminster Abbey shook up the royal dynamic of Europe. Philip renounced his titles as Prince of Greece and Denmark to marry Elizabeth.

She was 21, he was 26. With his marriage to the heir to the British throne, he was made duke of Edinburgh.

They had four kids: Charles, Anne, Andrew, and Edward.

###

2003

Recording producer Phil Spector is indicted for killing actress Lana Clarkson.

Spector worked with the likes of John Lennon, Ike and Tina Turner, and the Ramones.

The trial didn’t begin until 2007. It lasted three and a half months.

The jury was deadlocked, and the judge declared a mistrial.

After a retrial, Spector was convicted of second-degree murder.

He is serving 19-years-to-life. He’ll be eligible for parole when he’s 88 years old.

History: November 12

1864

General Sherman begins his March to the Sea with the destruction of Atlanta.

Union troops had captured the stronghold in September, and Sherman spent time fortifying his position and well-supplying his troops.

When Sherman was ready to push through Georgia, he ordered the city demolished. He didn’t want Confederates to have the chance to recover anything valuable.

When they left on November 15, all that remained was smokey ruins.

###

1954

Ellis Island shuts down as the processing center for immigrants coming into America.

Beginning in 1892, it was designated the first federal immigration processing center. Prior to then, states handled immigrants individually. Go figure.

Ellis Island was reserved for the poorest passengers, who were inspected to ensure they weren’t carrying some new strain of infectious disease and weren’t on the lam from their home country.

Only about 2 out of 100 immigrants were turned away.

1907 was the busiest year, when 1 million immigrants were processed. That’s about 2,800 a day.

Today, it’s a museum.

###

1979

President Carter orders an end to any oil imports from Iran.

The move followed the raid on the US Embassy in Tehran on November 4, where 66 Americans remained captive.

Oil prices skyrocketed as supply plummeted.

Carter was handily defeated the following November.

###

1982

Yuri Andropov becomes General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.

He succeeded Lenoid Brezhnev.

Andropov looked to tackle internal social issues, particularly combatting alcoholism, which was running rampant among the Soviet populace.

He also dealt with pressure from President Reagan, who was aggressively anti-communist.

Andropov’s reign was short-lived. He died in February 1984.

History: November 19

1863

President Lincoln dedicates the military cemetery at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania.

Just shy of 300 words, the famous address memorialized those who had died in battle, and why the Union must fight to preserve itself.

Four months earlier, more than 45,000 were killed, injured, captured or missing following three days of bloody fighting. With the subsequent Union victory, Lee was forced to retreat, and never again made a significant punch into Union territory.

On the day of the speech, the crowd that had gathered first heard a two hour speech from Edward Everett, a politician and diplomat.

Only one photo is known to exist of Lincoln at the the dedication. Since his speech was so short, photographers didn’t have ample time to set up.

###

1985

President Reagan meets with Mikhail Gorbachev in Geneva, Switzerland.

The encounter marked their first summit as leaders, and the first between the American and Soviet leader in more than 8 years.

While no significant policy emerged from the discussion, the men quickly struck up a personal friendship that endured as the Soviet Union eventually collapsed.

###

1996

The longest bridge to span ice-covered water in the world is completed, in Canada.

The Confederation Bridge spans just over 8 miles, supported by piers 250 meteres apart. It would open to the public the following May, after extensive testing and maintenance.

The bridge is not a straight shot across water. Instead it is curved, helping drivers to see traffic ahead of them.

###

1998

Kenneth Starr first presents his case against Bill Clinton to the House Judiciary Committee.

The presentation Was the beginning of the end of a $45 million investigation into accusations that the President lied about real estate investments, and expanded into his affair in the White House.

Bill Clinton was eventually acquitted by the Senate.

###

2003

Santa Barbara County police issue an arrest warrant for Michael Jackson.

It followed an accusation of child molestation against the pop icon, who was increasingly becoming a public freakshow in tabloids and the blabbersphere. His image wasn’t helped by a documentary by Martin Bashir, whose crew had unprecedented and tremendous access to Jackson and his family. Jackson’s admission on camera to sleeping in bed with other children triggered the investigation into his illicit behavior.

In early 2005 his case went to trial, and Jackson was subsequently acquitted. Following the trial, Jackson and his family moved to Bahrain. He returned in 2006.

History: November 15

1847

The world’s first stock ticker debuts in New York City.

The machine printed stock quotes on streams of paper, configured through a telegraph machine.

The same paper would be used for ticker-tape parades. The term “ticker” got its name from the sound of the paper going through the machine’s wheel.

###

1889

Brazilians depose their last emperor, Pedro II.

67 years after establishing the monarchy, the people of the South American country never took to liking imperial rule, though the last leader was generally successful and benevolent.

Pedro II oversaw a stable country, but alienated military officials and middle class city dwellers.

Pedro survived the military coup — he died in exile in Europe 2 years later.

###

1957

Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev belligerently challenges the US to a “shooting match” with missiles.

Khrushchev made the claim to an American reporter, making the point that the USSR’s missile capabilities were far superior to the United States’.

He also boasted about the recent success of Sputnik, fueling fears that America was falling behind in both the arms and the space races.

The “missile gap” would become a key debate point in the 1960 presidential campaign.

###

1990

The National Assembly of Bulgaria reestablishes the country as a free state.

The body changed the name from the People’s Republic of Bulgaria to the Republic of Bulgaria.

It also voted to undo the Bulgarian Communist Party’s logo from the country’s flag.

###

1979

A bomb makes its way onto the cargo hold of a passenger flight from Chicago to Washington DC.

It began smoking halfway through the flight, causing the pilot to land early. Some passengers had to be treated of smoke inhalation. Were it not for a faulty timing mechanism, it would have destroyed the whole plane.

###

1985

An attack on a University of Michigan professor almost kills 2.

The bomb was sent to Dr. James Mcconnell’s house, disguised as a pile of papers. McConnell’s research assistant opened the package, when it exploded. McConnell suffered hearing loss and the assistant received shrapnel wounds.

Ted Kaczynski is presently serving life in prison with no chance of parole.

History: November 16

1532

Conquistador Francisco Pizarro captures Incan emperor Atahualpa.

Pizarro tricked the native king into attending what was supposed to be a peaceful feast held in his honor.

When Atahualpa arrived with his escort of Incans, the Spaniards open fire on them, killing them all.

Pizarro eventually forced Atahualpa to convert to Christianity. Then he killed them.

###

1777

The ragtags trying to run the budding American government establish the Articles of Confederation.

It took 16 months to finalize the document. It was designed to give power to the states individually, with a small federal government.

Much of that changed with the passage of the US Constitution 11 years later.

###

1849

Russian author Fyodor Dostoyevsky is sentenced to death for publicly decrying the government.

He was a part of the Petrashevsky Circle, a group of intellectual radicals who opposed the Tsar.

Just before he was scheduled to be shot by firing squad, someone in the Russian monarchy changed their mind; he was instead sentenced to spend 4 years working in a Siberian labor camp. This was as good as a death sentence, though some survived.

He would later write his most notable work, The Brothers Karamazov, in 1880.

###

1945

The US starts herding German scientists across the Atlantic, to get their help developing rocket technology.

Most of the recruits worked for the Nazis, though not all willingly.

The US was eager to get its hands on the technology that powered the V-1 and V-2 German rockets.

In order to avoid public outcry for getting their help, the military said they were simply volunteers coming to work after the war for small stipends. Officially, the scientists were in American “protective custody.”

###

1901

A small electric car breaks the world record for fastest automobile, a title held for 10 years.

The device was called the Torpedo Racer, and it was a glorified platform on bike wheels.

It hit speeds of 57 miles per hour.

###

2001

To wild fanfare and box office glory, Harry Potter and the Sorcerer’s Stone opens in theaters stateside.

Christopher Columbus was the director, who followed suit for the second movie, but quit after that.

The franchise of course spans 7 books, which turned into 8 movies, and made Rowling a kajillionaire.

The films have become the most successful in history, selling more in ticket sales than Star Wars. But with Episode 7 in the works, who knows?

History: November 14

1851

Herman Melville’s novel Moby Dick is published.

It follows the whaling ship Pequod, and its captain, Ahab, in pursuit of a giant white whale.

The first words are among the most famous in American literature: “Call me Ishmael.”

At first the book didn’t sell very well, which disappointed Melville, who had written several successful novels. After his death, in the early 1920s, Moby Dick resurfaced, and became the must-read it is today.

###

1896

Britain amends its speed limit for horseless carriages.

Some 30 motorists had taken to the streets of London, and some were causing trouble. Parliament had recently repealed the “Red Flag Act.” This was a bizarre law that required cars to be accompanied by someone walking alongside it, holding a red flag to alert pedestrians and horses to its presence. The Red Flag Act limited speeds to 4 miles per hour.

The new law increased the speed limit to 14 miles per hour.

###

1918

Eugene Ely becomes the first pilot to get a plane airborne from a naval vessel.

With 83 feet of runway sloped five degrees, Ely managed to get his plane airborne off the bow of the scout cruiser Birmingham.

Ely was also the first man to land a plan on a ship, a feat he achieved the following year.

###

1922

The British Broadcasting Company begins its daily radio news updates.

It featured a 6pm nightly newscast, originating in London.

A broadcast license fee cost 10 shillings at the time — that’s about $30 today. The BBC was looking to cheaply spread its programming and build an extensive network.

###

1969

The second manned mission to the moon blasts off from Cape Canaveral.

On board are Charles Conrad Jr, Richard F Gordon Jr, and Alan Bean. President Nixon was on hand to witness the launch.

On liftoff, a bolt of lightning shocked the rocket, killing the power. Miraculously, the ascent continued and power was eventually restored.

The third and fourth men on the moon conducted more tests, and looked into the crash site of the Surveyor 3 probe, which impacted the moon in 1967.

###

1970

A plane carrying the Marshall University football team crashes over West Virginia, killing more than 60 players, doctors, and coaches.

The team had lost their game earlier that day.

Huntington, North Carolina was the home of the university, and it uncharacteristically shut down in the days after the crash.

The next season, a new coach started to build a new team from scratch — and it managed to win its first home game since the crash.

History: November 5

1862
President Abraham Lincoln removed one of his top generals from command.
George McClellan was commanding the Army of the Potomac. Though he was an adept and capable leader, he was often paranoid and unaggressive in the field. As experienced as he was, he was no match for Robert E. Lee.
Two years later, McClellan challenged Lincoln for the presidency. He won the Democratic nomination, but lost handily in the general.

1977
George W. Bush marries Laura Welch in Texas.
He would of course spend time as an oil man and GM of the Texas Rangers before becoming president in 2000.

1994
George Foreman becomes the oldest heavyweight champ on record.
At 45 years old, Foreman squared off with Michael Moorer in Las Vegas. His opponent was only 26.
12,000 came out for the fight, where Foreman knocked out Moorer in the 10th round.
Foreman’s return to fighting was to pay his bills, having squandered the millions he earned earlier in his career.
He retired in 1997. Since then he’s made money shilling his electoral grill and pitching other products on TV.

2007
The Writers Guild of America begins its strike, stalling TV shows mid-season.
By some estimates, the organized labor strike cost $3 billion in lost advertising sales and other economic opportunities in Los Angeles.
At play was the stake writers would get from DVD sales and streaming opportunities, which allowed for increased exposure of their shows after their initial run.
An agreement was struck February the following year.

2009
Major Nidal Hasan opens fire on other soldiers and civilians at Fort Hood in Texas.
13 were killed and 32 wounded.
Hasan himself was an Army psychiatrist. He was reportedly upset over being deployed to Afghanistan later that month, and feared having to kill other Muslims.

History: November 2

1889
North and South Dakota become the 39th and 40th states admitted to the union.
The Dakotas became populated by Americans after railroads were laid and transportation of goods became easier and cheaper, in the late 19th century.
The Enabling Act of 1889 built the framework to admit these states, as well as Montana and Washington. Following Benjamin Harrison’s election, he officially admitted North and South Dakota to the Union.
Since then, there’s been animosity over which was was actually admitted first. President Harrison wanted the official signed documents making them states pulled at random. No one knows which was officially first — but since N comes before S alphabetically, North Dakota usually gets credit for being Number 39.

1947
Howard Hughes’ “Spruce Goose” takes flight.
It was the largest aircraft ever built. Hughes designed the project, and was at the helm for the maiden flight.
It had been commissioned in 1941, at the outset of America’s entrance into World War II. $23 million and 5 years later, it was finished, after fighting ended.

1948
President Truman holds the presidency, after defeating Thomas Dewey.
Truman won by just more than two million votes.
It was a squeaker election, but many had thought the win was a lock for Dewey. The Chicago Tribune infamously pulled the trigger on the wrong headline before the results were in: Dewey Defeats Truman.

1959
Charles Van Doren admits to Congress that the game show “Twenty One” was rigged, and that he had been given the questions and their answers before appearing on the show.
Twenty One celebrated great ratings and regular captive audiences, but it turned out the progression of contestants through the ranks was entirely rigged.
Van Doren would go on to be a well-published academic and writer, who actively edited the Encyclopedia Britannica.

2000
The first short-term residents of the International Space Station enter the orbiting capsule.
One American and two Russians began the four-month mission. They were running on limited power and living out of only two rooms. In December, Shuttle Endeavor would arrive carrying full solar panels, in order to allow expansion and full power.