History: February 8, 2019

1587
Mary Queen of Scots is beheaded. She was sent to the French Court as an infant to he raised, and eventually married the King of France. When he died after only a year on the throne, she returned to Scotland at Age 17. A few years later, after rumors of infidelity and palace intrigue, Scottish nobles rose up and overthrew Mary in favor of her son James The Sixth.

She was taken captive, but eventually escaped to England, where she was protected by cousin Elizabeth the First. But that didn’t last long; Elizabeth put Mary under house arrest when rumors of Mary seeking the throne for herself began swirling. She was eventually executed for treason.

When Elizabeth I died, Mary’s son James took the British throne and changed his title to James I, where he ruled over all of England, Scotland, and Ireland.

Some suggest Mary’s story heavily influenced Shakespeare in writing his play “MacBeth.”

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1887
President Cleveland signs the Severalty Act.

The legislation was an attempt to assimilate Native Americans with western culture.

The law ended tribal control of reservations and divided their land into individual holdings.

In 1934, the Wheeler-Howard act overturned the law, trying to give central control back to Indian tribes.

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1904
The Russo-Japanese war begins.

Russia rejected a Japanese plan to split Manchuria and Korea. The Japanese then attacked a Russian naval base in China, where it decimated the Reds’ fleet.

Much of Japan’s success in the fighting was contributed to Russia’s underestimation of their fighting capabilities.

Fighting was swift. In August 1905, President Teddy Roosevelt brokered a peace treaty between the two nations.

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1910
The Boy Scouts of America is incorporated.

In its earliest days, the YMCA managed and grew the program, then had it turned over to James E. West, who acted as the first Chief Scout Executive and worked to expand the program across the country.

Since then it has grown to a membership of nearly 3 million scouts and more than a million volunteer leaders.

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1943
Japanese troops up and leave Guadalcanal.

After weeks of fighting on the small Pacific island, the U.S. lost more than 1600 men in combat and suffered 4,000 additional casualties from wounds or disease.

Meanwhile, the Japanese lost 24,000.

Capturing Guadalcanal was the last necessary step in securing the Solomon islands.

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