History: January 16, 2019

1861
A legislative attempt to keep the North and South together falls apart in Congress.

It was called the Crittenden Compromise, named for Seantor John Crittenden from Kentucky.

The compromise would have legalized permanently slavery in the southern states, and also permanently protected northern states from ever legalizing slavery. The language of the bill said it could never be repealed or amended.

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1919
Prohibition is ratified, and the manufacture, sale, and transportation of booze is outlawed across the country.

A special department of the Treasury Department was created to enforce the law, as part of the Volstead Act. Nonetheless, organized crime ended up doing very well during this time.

Fourteen years later prohibition was finally repealed, with the passage of the 21st amendment.

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1945
It’s the beginning of the end for Adolf Hitler, as he spends his first of 105 days in
his secure bunker in Berlin.

The bunker had its own water and electric supply. Most of the Nazi brass came in to see
him, and he rarely left.

As the Allies pushed closer into Germany, hope was lost for the Nazis, and der Fuhrer
committed suicide on April 30.

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1970
St. Louis Cardinals center fielder Curt Flood sues the MLB over the reserve
clause. The rule prevented baseball players from switching teams unless they were traded. Flood argued the policy violated antitrust laws.

No active players agreed to testify on Flood’s behalf, leading to his case’s demise.
Eventually the players would benefit from the publicity of the case: in 1973, MLB
allowed federal arbitration of players’ salary demands. This eventually led to free
agency, first in baseball, then in all pro sports.

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1979
The Shah of Iran flees in the wake of violent uprisings in the country.
He had been in power since 1941. In that time, he took steps to westernize and
modernize the Arab state. Ayatollah Khomeini then took over, having been exiled for 15
years.

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1991
The United Nations deadline for Iraq to remove invading forces from Kuwait
comes and goes.
Saddam Hussein had until midnight on January 16th, 1991 to retreat from Kuwait. Just
after midnight, President Bush authorized Operation Desert Storm, led by General
Norman Schwarzkopf.
Major fighting would end by March 3, when Iraqi generals formally surrendered.

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