History: November 15

1847

The world’s first stock ticker debuts in New York City.

The machine printed stock quotes on streams of paper, configured through a telegraph machine.

The same paper would be used for ticker-tape parades. The term “ticker” got its name from the sound of the paper going through the machine’s wheel.

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1889

Brazilians depose their last emperor, Pedro II.

67 years after establishing the monarchy, the people of the South American country never took to liking imperial rule, though the last leader was generally successful and benevolent.

Pedro II oversaw a stable country, but alienated military officials and middle class city dwellers.

Pedro survived the military coup — he died in exile in Europe 2 years later.

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1957

Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev belligerently challenges the US to a “shooting match” with missiles.

Khrushchev made the claim to an American reporter, making the point that the USSR’s missile capabilities were far superior to the United States’.

He also boasted about the recent success of Sputnik, fueling fears that America was falling behind in both the arms and the space races.

The “missile gap” would become a key debate point in the 1960 presidential campaign.

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1990

The National Assembly of Bulgaria reestablishes the country as a free state.

The body changed the name from the People’s Republic of Bulgaria to the Republic of Bulgaria.

It also voted to undo the Bulgarian Communist Party’s logo from the country’s flag.

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1979

A bomb makes its way onto the cargo hold of a passenger flight from Chicago to Washington DC.

It began smoking halfway through the flight, causing the pilot to land early. Some passengers had to be treated of smoke inhalation. Were it not for a faulty timing mechanism, it would have destroyed the whole plane.

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1985

An attack on a University of Michigan professor almost kills 2.

The bomb was sent to Dr. James Mcconnell’s house, disguised as a pile of papers. McConnell’s research assistant opened the package, when it exploded. McConnell suffered hearing loss and the assistant received shrapnel wounds.

Ted Kaczynski is presently serving life in prison with no chance of parole.