History: October 31, 2018

1517
Martin Luther nails a piece of paper with his 95 theses written on them to the front door of the Castle Church in Wittenberg, Germany.

The document outlined Luther’s contempt for the corruption in the Catholic Church. More than anything, he decried “indulgences” — by which Catholics could pay the church to forgive their sins faster.

While the Church tried to silence Luther, they failed. He then embarked on translating the Bible to German, which took 10 years.

1776
In his first public speech since receiving the Declaration of Independence, King George III admits that the war is not going well.

He said that even though the Brits had won a few key victories, the resolve of the colonists to maintain independence was strong. Worse, there would be need for more fighting.

It was largely assumed that the rebellion in the colonies in the New World would be short-lived, especially in the context of a free, non-monarchical society that was supposed to emerge from it.

1892
The first print of The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes is printed.

It was the first collection of Detective Sherlock Holmes stories; previously they had only appeared in magazines, since 1887.

The author, Arthur Conan Doyle, was knighted in 1902, not for his work as an author, but for his field work as a doctor.

1957
The first US Headquarters for Toyota opens, in Hollywood.

The building itself was formerly a Rambler dealership.

Toyota was leveraging their cheap Crown sedans against other domestically-produced cars.

By 1975, Toyota became the best-selling import in the US.

1961
Nikita Khrushchev orders that Joseph Stalin’s embalmed corpse be taken from the special mosoleum next to Vladimir Lenin.

The move came as Khrushchev liberalized the communist society, and sought to get rid of its more despotic history.

Lenin remains on display.

2000
A Soyuz spacecraft carries the first long-term crew to the International Space Station.

On board are 2 russians and an American, William Shepherd. Under designation Expedition 1, the crew stayed on board until March 2001, when they returned to Earth on an American Space Shuttle.