History: October 5

1550

Spanish Conquistador Pedro de Valdivia founds Concepción, Chile.

It was close to the border of Spanish-controlled territory and the lands of the Mapuche.

The town functioned as a military settlement for brass in the Spanish army occupying South America. Four years later, natives overran the village and destroyed it. But the Spaniards were unfazed, and built it again in 1555.

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1582

This date is the first of ten that are … well, lost, in Italy, Poland, Portugal, and Spain.

Those countries switched from the Julian calendar to the Gregorian calendar effective the day after October 4th. But in order to get on the same page as other countries already using the Gregorian calendar, the date following October 4th 1582 would be October 15th.### 
1869

FA Spofford and Matthew G Raffington receive a patent for a “water velocipede.”

It was a rudimentary paddleboat. The invention was one of many similar vessels patented around that time as upperclass folks looked for new activities on the water.

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1947

Harry Truman addresses the nation from the White House – he’s the first to do so.

In the speech, he implores Americans to conserve use of grain to aid Europe, which was rebuilding from six years of war.

People were asked to give up meat on Tuesdays and poultry on Thursdays. The initiative did not last long, as the Marshall Plan was quickly successful in rebuilding Europe.

In 1948, Truman became the first president to broadcast a paid political ad on TV.

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1953

The New York Yankees beat the Brooklyn Dodgers in game six of the World Series, marking their fifth consecutive championship.

It was the fourth time in 11 years that the Yankees beat the Dodgers to win all the marbles.

Two years later, the Dodgers would get their first MLB championship – against the Yankees.

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1962

The first James Bond movie is released in the UK.

The flick pitted James Bond against Dr. Julius No, an evil villain with an underground base, plotting to thwart an American space launch.

Sean Connery starred as the tuxedoed superspy.### 
1990

The first film with an NC-17 rating hits theaters.

Henry & June stars Uma Thurman, Fred Ward, and Maria de Medeiros. It contained lady-on-lady action, which caused the adult rating. It also got an Oscar nomination for cinematography.

NC-17 replaced the X rating, which had come too associated with pornography